Here are just a few quick sketches as I brainstorm on phenology matching and how it could impact pollinators. I am conceptually modeling ‘matching’ here between annuals and shrubs – not between plants-pollinators. However, that set of conjunction of three interactor-phenology dynamics would be absolutely fascinating.
Can pollinators ‘catch up’ to either set of floral resources and/or does the extent of set mismatches between plants and insects introduce plant-plant novel (and likely negative) dynamics.
Phenology matches can be varied. We need to know this for a range of different sites wherein shrubs facilitate annuals.
You can introduce phytometers at different times and annual contexts at the site level.
If the mismatches in annual-shrub flowering are dramatic and generally non-overlapping regionally, ouch, then perhaps artificial shrubs with flowers are needed. Some options depicted here. Basically, add a shrub-flowering treatment. Not ideal but thanks to droughts in California, can be critical.